This is the third of a series of posts describing how the volatility memory forensics application was ported to a new Windows operating system version.
Apart from the inevitable changes in kernel data structures which typically come with a new kernel version, Vista brought with it a change which broke one of volatility’s key techniques for identifying kernel objects. The change was Address Space Layout Randomisation (ALSR). Thanks to Gil Peterson for sharing this detail.
Structural interpretation approaches to volatile memory analysis rely on finding an initial kernel object from which one may traverse to other objects, in order to find objects of interest to the investigator. With XP, volatility employed “the KPCR trick”. XP reliably stored the “Kernel Processor Control Region” at a fixed kernel virtual address (0xffdff000). From the KPCR structure, one then traverses intermediate structures (KdVersionBlock, then DebuggerDataList) to access interesting structures such as the active process list.
In Vista, KPCR is not stored at a fixed address, so the first problem in porting volatility to Vista and above, to reliably get an initial reference to a valid KPCR structure.
Damien Aumaitre points out in his 2009 paper "A little journey inside Windows memory" that KPCR is self referencing. Based on this observation I undertook the following investigations:
- I loaded up windbg to look at the KPCR of a XP dump file.
- Set the symbol path
.sympath SRV*C:devsymbolcachesymbols*http://msdl.microsoft.com/download/symbols .reload
- Examined the KPCR
kd> !pcr KPCR for Processor 0 at ffdff000: Major 1 Minor 1 NtTib.ExceptionList: ed89dcf0 NtTib.StackBase: ed89ddf0 NtTib.StackLimit: ed89a000 NtTib.SubSystemTib: 00000000 NtTib.Version: 00000000 NtTib.UserPointer: 00000000 NtTib.SelfTib: 7ffdf000 SelfPcr: ffdff000 Prcb: ffdff120 Irql: 00000000 IRR: 00000000 IDR: ffffffff InterruptMode: 00000000 IDT: 8003f400 GDT: 8003f000 TSS: 80042000 CurrentThread: 86724020 NextThread: 00000000 IdleThread: 80552740 DpcQueue:
Note that the first line indicates that KPCR is at VA 0xffdff000, which is to be expected. Note also that the SelfPcr attribute (at offset 0x1c from the start of the structure) has the same value at the address of the KPCR. This is what Aumaitre means by self referencing. There exists an additional self referencing property here related to the Prcb field which I will not go into.
Repeating the above on a Vista image gives the following. Note that the KPCR structure is not at 0xffdff000, and again, that the SelfPcr field points to the KPCR address.
kd> !pcr KPCR for Processor 0 at 818f4700: Major 1 Minor 1 NtTib.ExceptionList: 9a7bfcf0 NtTib.StackBase: 00000000 NtTib.StackLimit: 00000000 NtTib.SubSystemTib: 80148000 NtTib.Version: 000c3fac NtTib.UserPointer: 00000001 NtTib.SelfTib: 7ffdf000 SelfPcr: 818f4700 Prcb: 818f4820 Irql: 00000000 IRR: 00000000 IDR: ffffffff InterruptMode: 00000000 IDT: 822eb400 GDT: 822eb000 TSS: 80148000 CurrentThread: 89d5eac0 NextThread: 00000000 IdleThread: 818f8300 DpcQueue:
- I checked the offsets for the SelfPcr as below:
kd> dt -r0 _KPCR 818f4700 ntdll!_KPCR +0x000 NtTib : _NT_TIB +0x000 Used_ExceptionList : 0x9a7bfcf0 _EXCEPTION_REGISTRATION_RECORD +0x004 Used_StackBase : (null) +0x008 Spare2 : (null) +0x00c TssCopy : 0x80148000 Void +0x010 ContextSwitches : 0xc3fac +0x014 SetMemberCopy : 1 +0x018 Used_Self : 0x7ffdf000 Void +0x01c SelfPcr : 0x818f4700 _KPCR +0x020 Prcb : 0x818f4820 _KPRCB +0x024 Irql 0; : 0 '' +0x028 IRR : 0 +0x02c IrrActive : 0 +0x030 IDR : 0xffffffff +0x034 KdVersionBlock : 0x818f3c18 Void +0x038 IDT : 0x822eb400 _KIDTENTRY +0x03c GDT : 0x822eb000 _KGDTENTRY +0x040 TSS : 0x80148000 _KTSS +0x044 MajorVersion : 1 +0x046 MinorVersion : 1 +0x048 SetMember : 1 +0x04c StallScaleFactor : 0x962 +0x050 SpareUnused : 0 '' +0x051 Number : 0 '' +0x052 Spare0 : 0 '' +0x053 SecondLevelCacheAssociativity : 0 '' +0x054 VdmAlert : 0 +0x058 KernelReserved :  0 +0x090 SecondLevelCacheSize : 0 +0x094 HalReserved :  0 +0x0d4 InterruptMode : 0 +0x0d8 Spare1 : 0 '' +0x0dc KernelReserved2 :  0
Scanning KPCR in Vista memory dumps
With the former in mind, I set about writing a volatility scanner that scans the kernel address space for potential KPCR structures. I note here that in my development I have relied on dump files generated by Matthieu Suiche’s win32dd. Dump files store the physical address of the kernel page directory base, which is enough to reconstruct the kernel address space, however, other means will be necessary if operating on raw (DD) style memory images.
The scanner runs through each kernel address space memory region, looking for memory patterns that match the following constraints:
- The VA of the start of candidate bytes >= 0x80000000 (i.e. it is in the kernel address space)
- The SelfPcr field at offset 0x1c from the start of the candidate bytes contains a pointer to the virtual address of the start of the KPCR structure
- The Prcb field at offset 0x20 within the structure contains a pointer to the start of the _KPRCB structure, which is embedded within the KPCR structure at offset 0x120.
I have observed the above scanning technique to identify one KPCR value per processor, which is consistent with the described function of the KPCR – it is a per processor structure.
The above scanner is usable as the volatility command kpcrscan, and the output of it used via the parameter --kpcr=
An example of usage is presented in the screen capture below: